Speaker John A. Boehner implored fellow Republicans on Wednesday to pass a $260 billion transportation bill, which has fallen victim to internal squabbling. The legislation to rebuild roads, bridges and rail transit was meant to help the Republican-controlled House stake a claim to being the party of job creation, financing as many as 7.8 million new construction jobs. Opposition from Republicans resulted in the failure of a procedural vote on Tuesday to limit debate on the bill. Mr. Boehner warned Republicans that if they failed to pass the bill, they would have to settle for a less ambitious measure in the Democratic-controlled Senate. The Senate’s $109 billion transportation bill does not contain energy expansion provisions that Republicans favor.