Under the agreement to be considered by the House and Senate later this week, Pentagon spending would rise nearly $5 billion this year — about $2 billion less than the increase initially sought by Republicans — while nondefense programs would receive targeted cuts as well as a $1 billion across-the-board decrease that would bring net spending reductions to roughly $38 billion.
As they assessed the deal struck Friday night, less than two hours before government agencies were to run out of money, both parties laid claim to victories in a showdown that presaged difficult spending fights to come between House Republicans and the Democratic-controlled Senate and White House.
Led by Speaker John A. Boehner, Republicans said the cuts to the current budgets of federal agencies showed that they could impose their demands to reduce spending substantially and reverse decades of government growth even though they control just one chamber of Congress.
“Instead of politicians talking about how much they wanted to increase spending, the entire debate of the last two months was about how much spending to reduce and where,” said Representative Todd Rokita, Republican of Indiana and one of 87 Republican freshmen whose insistence on deeper cuts influenced the spending fight. “This is progress.”
Democrats, who said they, too, recognized the need to pare spending, said they were able to limit damage to favored programs like Head Start and public broadcasting while beating back some of what they saw as flawed, ideologically driven policy provisions pushed by House conservatives, including restrictions on money for family planning and environmental regulations.
“This is an agreement to invest in our country’s future while making the largest annual spending cut in our history,” President Obama said Saturday. He said Democrats “prevented this important debate from being overtaken by politics and unrelated disagreements on social issues.”
Details of the specific cuts, which Mr. Boehner said would amount to $500 billion over the next decade, were still emerging. The cuts include about one-third of the money provided in the new health care law to encourage the creation of insurance cooperatives, Congressional aides said. The law provided up to $6 billion for loans and grants to such nonprofit co-ops, which would compete with private insurers in offering health care to families, individuals and small businesses.
Senator Kent Conrad, Democrat of North Dakota, had championed co-ops as an alternative to a government-run health plan favored by many liberal Democrats. However, the Congressional Budget Office said the co-ops were “unlikely to establish a significant market presence in many areas of the country.”
Mr. Obama acknowledged that some of the cuts would be painful. Given a new spending total for the next six months, Congressional aides were to spend the weekend spreading the cuts across federal agencies and writing the fine print of legislation that is to be considered in the House around midweek, with the Senate to follow.
For Mr. Boehner, caught between the Democratic-led Senate and a House Republican caucus demanding cuts, the budget compromise showed he could navigate treacherous negotiations and produce results acceptable to his party even though his dealings with Democrats brought the federal government to the brink of a shutdown.
“I think he came out fairly well when you consider we did not win the Senate, we did not win the White House and there is a lot of impatience on the fact that we have a great majority,” said Representative Jack Kingston, a Georgia Republican and member of the Appropriations Committee.
Not everyone was pleased with the outcome. The House voted early Saturday 348 to 70 to send Mr. Obama a stopgap measure to finance the government through Thursday while the compromise legislation is drafted. Forty-two Democrats and 28 Republicans, mainly conservatives, opposed the stopgap bill, signaling that Mr. Boehner still has some selling to do to his right flank. Mr. Obama signed the measure into law on Saturday afternoon.
In the Senate, where the interim measure was approved on a voice vote, there were objectors as well. “It does not set us on a path to fixing the spending and debt problems our country is facing,” said Senator Rand Paul, a Republican from Kentucky.
Some Democrats also were skeptical. Representative George Miller of California, a veteran liberal lawmaker, expressed concerns about the compromise.
“The American people have been told the agreement contains both ‘historic’ and ‘painful’ cuts. The question will be painful for whom,” Mr. Miller said in a written statement. “Poor and middle-class families have already received more than their fair share of pain in this economy.”
Robert Pear contributed reporting.